Nageswaran and Devi: Assess the depression anxiety and stress among adults


Introduction

“Prevention is better than cure” Mental health plays most vital health indicators, but is given least important in aspects of the health that causes considerable morbidity.3 It is estimated that people lived with a mental health disorder 792 million globally, this is 10.7% one in ten people slightly more than that.4 To maintain the mental health of an individual nature and nurture play an very important. The current changing environment leads to lot of social issues to unemployment. Poverty5 etc brings stress, anxiety it may lead to depression ultimately it affects individual mental. These brought insight to researchers to conduct the present study. Objectives are. (1) To assess the stress anxiety and depression, among adults in selected areas of Pune city. (2) To associate the findings with selected demographic variables.

Materials and Methods

A non-experimental descriptive survey method was used.6 200 sample who met the sampling criteria were included. Research Variable: prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among adults. Tool: Section I — Demographic Data. Section II– DASS21.6 Content validity of the tool was obtained from nine experts from different disciplines like Nursing, Psychology and statistics, Reliability of tool found r=0.98. Pilot study was conducted with20 sample and found too feasible to conduct main study. During Data collection Formal permission from the various authorities. Ethical considerations like informed written consent, confidentiality was incorporated.

Results

The collected data from the sample was analysed as per objectives by using descriptive and inferential analysis.

The analysed data presented as follows:

  1. Section A: Distribution of Demographic data by frequency and percentage

  2. Section B: Distribution of stress, anxiety, and depression by percentage

  3. Section C: Association between stress, anxiety, and depression with demographic data

Section A: Distribution of demographic data by frequency and percentage

Table 1

Distribution of demographic data by frequency and percentagen=200

S. No

Demographic Data

Frequency

%

1.

Age (years)

<25

27

13.5

25-35

83

41.5

35-45

36

18

45-55

32

16

>55

22

11

2.

Gender

Male

118

59

Female

82

41

3.

Education

No formal education

51

26.5

Primary

49

24.5

Secondary

56

28

Higher secondary

16

08

Graduate

23

11.5

Any other

5

2.5

4.

Occupation

Unemployed

67

33.5

Private services

34

17

Govt services

5

2.5

42

21

Home makers

52

26

4.a

Nature work & place

Heavy work

19

9.5

Sedentary work

181

90.5

4.b

Hours of work

<5

138

69

5-10

38

19

> 10

24

12

5.

Marital status

Married

170

85

Unmarried

28

14

Single/Widow/widower

2

1

Table 0

6.

Type of family

Joint

116

58

Nuclear

84

42

7.

Monthly income of the family

5000-15000

81

40.5

15000-30000

79

39.5

30000-45000

32

16

above 45000

8

4

8.

Any medical history

Yes

24

12

No

176

88

8.a

If yes

DM

17

8.5

HTN

5

2.5

OA

2

1

CAD

0

0

Any other

0

0

8.b

Duration of the illness (years)

<2

13

6.5

2-5

9

4.5

>5

2

1

8.c

Expenses for illness in Rs/month

<2000

13

6.5

2000-5000

9

4.5

>5000

2

1

9

living

arrangements

Living alone

34

17

Living with

family

164

82

Living with

friends

2

1

10

How do you spend

your leisure time

10.1

Please specify

what activities you do

Watching tv

124

62

Reading books &

news papers

27

13.5

Drawing&

painting

7

3.5

Talking with

friends

36

18

Any others

6

3

10.2

< 1

120

60

1-3

71

35.5

>3

9

4.5

Table 1 shows the majority of sample belong to age group 25-35 years, gender is male, secondary education they completed, living in joint family, in type of work the belongs to sedentary work and leisure time they spent mostly by watching TV also unemployment.

Section B: Distribution of stress, anxiety and depression by percentage n=200

Figure 1

Bar diagram represents of stress, anxiety and depression by percentage

https://typeset-prod-media-server.s3.amazonaws.com/article_uploads/4ce6e9dc-dc9c-4a83-bf1d-bf4014dfcab5/image/96e33bae-673e-40ee-bae5-800ee220e678-uimage.png

Figure 1 shows that 54% sample have extremely severe anxiety; 34% sample have moderate depression and 43% sample have normal stress level.

Section C: Association between stress, anxiety and depression with demographic data

Table 2

Association between stress, anxiety anddepression with demographic data n= 200

S. No

Demographic data

F test

F Cal

df

F tab

P-value

1.

Age (years)

74.05

3

2.616

0.03

2.

Gender

168.03

3

2.616

0.02

3.

Education

70.10

3

2.616

0.03

4.

Occupation

59.32

3

2.616

0.01

5.

Marital Status

229.31

3

2.616

0.05

6.

Type of Family

188.36

3

2.616

0.03

7.

Monthly Income of The Family

131.74

3

2.616

0.03

8.

Any medical history

139.83

3

2.616

0.01

9.

Living arrangements

145.26

3

2.616

0.05

10.

How do you spend your leisure time

91.62

3

2.616

0.06

The demographic variable like age, gender, education etc almost all shown statistically significant association as the P value is less than 0.05.7 Spend of leisure time may not show statistically significant, but review show spends of leisure time influence stress and anxiety.

Discussion

Early identification depressive, anxiety, and stress-related symptoms in adults is a preventive measure, which can help in prevent major physical health related issues like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases etc. and mental health disorders like substance abuse and antisocial behaviours etc in later lives. Conduct awareness program among people about management of stress, healthy lifestyles, human relationships will help to enhance the both physical and mental health of the people.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

1 

P S Wang S A Gaxiola J Alonso M C Angermeyer G Borges E J Bromet Use of mental health services for anxiety, mood, and substance disorders in 17 countries in the WHO world mental health surveysLancet200737095908415010.1016/S0140-6736(07)61414-7

2 

S Sahoo C R J Khess Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among young male adults in India: a dimensional and categorical diagnoses-based studyJ Nerv Ment Dis201019812901410.1097/NMD.0b013e3181fe75dc

3 

M Mirzaei S M Y Ardekani M Mirzaei A Dehghani Prevalence of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Adult Population: Results of Yazd Health StudyIran J Psychiatry201914213746

4 

H Ritchie M Roser Mental HealthApril2018https://ourworldindata.org/mental-health

5 

R Pandey Current Major Issues in IndiaAugust 2020https://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/society/current-major-issues-in-india



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Article History

Received : 08-05-2021

Accepted : 20-05-2021

Available online : 06-07-2021


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Article DOI

https://doi.org/10.18231/j.jpmhh.2021.006


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